Fixed Capital

What is

A business must understand what fixed capital is and its consumption (also called CFC); it plays a decisive role in production and affects the company’s financial stability. Fixed capital refers to a company’s long-term assets and investments to produce goods or provide services. These assets, such as machinery, buildings, or land, are intended to be used over an extended period and are not readily convertible into cash.

This article will help you understand the importance of fixed capital for a business and how it differs from working capital.

What is fixed capital in a nutshell?

Fixed capital refers to long-term investments made in assets that the company will use for a long time. It contrasts with working capital which covers short-term investments in day-to-day operations.

Fixed capital is critical for business growth and competitiveness, allowing companies to invest in technology and equipment. Investing in fixed capital requires significant upfront funds and may be illiquid.

Fixed capital investments have broad economic impacts, boosting productivity and creating jobs. The long-term effects of such investments must be considered, including technological advancements and market changes. Companies can also seek alternative funding sources, and governments can provide tax incentives and infrastructure support.

If you answer the question of what fixed capital is in one sentence, in that case, it is material objects of the company, which are used in the production of goods, the provision of services, and the performance of work. These are equipment, devices, cars, buildings, and other material and intellectual values.

Note! Watch the CBSE video lecture in Hindi if you are wondering what a fixed capital account is.

Understanding fixed capital

Fixed capital refers to long-term investments made by companies, individuals, and governments to purchase assets that will be used for extended periods. The fixed capital investment aims to generate a long-term return on investment by producing goods and services.

Fixed capital is essential for businesses to grow and succeed, enabling companies to invest in the technology and equipment necessary to remain competitive. For example, a manufacturing company may invest in new machinery or automation to improve production processes, leading to increased efficiency and cost savings. This investment in fixed capital can also lead to increased competitiveness in the market, allowing the company to offer higher quality products at a lower price.

Fixed capital investments also have a significant impact on the broader economy. For example, increased investment in fixed capital can lead to increased productivity, which can help to drive economic growth. It can also create new jobs and boost the local economy, as companies may purchase goods and services from local suppliers.

However, it is essential to consider the long-term effects of fixed capital investments, particularly in the context of technological advances and changing market conditions. For example, a company that invests in a particular type of machinery may find that the technology needs to be updated or that the market demand for their products changes, which could lead to reduced competitiveness and decreased profitability.

Examples of fixed capital

Let’s take the story of an Indian youth, Kishore, who bought a buffalo and a wooden cart on credit. What is Kishora’s fixed capital? They are buffalo and a wooden cart. But working capital is the money Kishore earns from selling milk and transporting goods on a wooden cart (remember to subtract living expenses).

Another story is about Mishrilal, who wants to produce palm sugar. To do this, he needs a machine for crushing sugar cane. What is Mishrilal’s fixed capital? It is a machine for producing goods, and working capital is the money Mishrilal will spend buying sugar cane and paying bills for electricity needed to operate the crusher.

What is the difference between fixed capital and working capital?

Fixed capital is often contrasted with working capital, which refers to the short-term investments made in day-to-day operations such as purchasing raw materials and inventory. While working capital is necessary for businesses to operate, fixed capital is seen as a critical driver of long-term growth and competitiveness.

Fixed capital requirements

The amount of fixed capital required for a business depends on several factors:

  1. Type of business. Different businesses have varying fixed capital requirements, some requiring more and others less. For example, companies in the manufacturing sector typically require more significant amounts of fixed capital than those in the service sector.
  2. Size of the company. The size also affects the fixed capital required. Larger companies tend to have higher fixed capital requirements as they must invest in more substantial assets, such as machinery and equipment, to support their operations.
  3. Production process. The production process is another factor influencing fixed capital requirements. Businesses that require extensive production processes, such as those in the construction or energy industries, may require substantial investments in fixed capital, as they need to invest in specialized machinery and equipment.
  4. Capital intensity. Capital intensity refers to the fixed capital required for every unit of output produced. Businesses with high capital intensity require substantial investments in fixed capital, as they need to invest in specialized machinery and equipment.
  5. Future expansion. The company must consider future expansion when determining their fixed capital requirements. If a company plans to expand its operations, it must invest additional fixed capital to support its growth.
  6. Technology. The technology used by a company also affects its fixed capital requirements. Companies that use more advanced technology often require higher investments in fixed capital, as they need to invest in specialized machinery and equipment.
  7. Financing options. The financing options available to a company also play a role in its fixed capital requirements. Companies that have access to financing options, such as bank loans or investment capital, may be able to invest more in fixed capital.
  8. Market conditions. Market conditions can also influence fixed capital requirements. Companies may have the resources to invest in more substantial fixed capital investments in a strong market. In a weak market, companies may invest less in fixed capital and instead focus on conserving their resources.

Depreciation of fixed capital

Fixed capital assets are subject to depreciation, which refers to the reduction in the value of an asset over time due to wear and tear obsolescence or other factors.

Depreciation reflects the asset’s value decline and provides a more accurate representation of a company’s financial health. Depreciation is recorded as an expense in the company’s financial statements, reducing the value of the asset and the company’s net worth.

Liquidity of fixed capital

Companies may need to access funds quickly to meet their obligations. But fixed capital is difficult to convert into cash, affecting the company’s liquidity.

Liquidity refers to the ease with which an asset can be sold or converted into cash without affecting its value. Fixed capital assets generally have lower liquidity than other assets such as stocks, bonds, or cash. When an unexpected need for money arises, selling or converting these assets into cash can be challenging.

However, some forms of fixed capital, such as real estate, can have relatively higher liquidity than other assets, such as heavy machinery. It is because real estate can be sold or rented out relatively quickly, generating cash flow. In contrast, machinery and other production equipment may require significant time and resources to sell and may incur a substantial loss in value due to depreciation.


Learn more about some of the nuances concerning fixed capital.

What is meant by fixed capital in a production system?

Fixed capital is all investments that a business makes in long-term assets. These assets are used more than once, most of which are involved in the production process. For example, equipment for the production of goods is an asset that is included in fixed assets.

What is meant by the consumption of fixed capital?

Consumption of fixed capital refers to the reduction in the value of a fixed asset (such as a building, machine, or equipment) due to wear and tear, age, or obsolescence, over a given period. For example, equipment for producing goods wears out and breaks down over time. It represents the cost of using a fixed asset in the production process and is deducted from the gross output to arrive at the net output.

What is meant by the fixed capital of a partner?

Fixed capital refers to the portion of a business partner’s investment in a partnership that is used to purchase long-term assets, such as buildings, equipment, and machinery. It represents the permanent, non-liquid investments a partner has made in the business and typically cannot be easily converted into cash.

What is the fixed capital account in partnership?

A fixed capital account is a form of the capital account in which a business maintains two separate accounts relating to different transactions occurring with partners’ capital. In this case, two accounts are prepared for each partner: capital and current.

The capital account is used to record the partner’s capital. The current account records all partners’ other transactions: salary, commission, drawings, etc.

What is Gross Fixed Capital Formation?

Gross fixed capital formation (GFCF) consists of investments by resident producers minus disposals in fixed assets over a specified period. Fixed assets include tangible or intangible products of production that are used repeatedly or continuously for more than a year.


Thanks to the article, you now know what the consumption of fixed capital, known as CFC, is and why it is essential for a business to manage this resource wisely. Detailed examples, understandable even to students of the 9th and 12th classes, clearly showed what the fixed capital method is.

Fixed capital is crucial to long-term economic growth and competitiveness. Whether a company is looking to invest in new technology or a government is looking to improve infrastructure, fixed capital investments are essential to drive growth and support economic prosperity.

Alex has over 9 years of experience in the financial markets. He has worked with various financial firms globally and has expertise in technical and fundamental analysis. Alex has fulfilled various roles in his 9 years of experience and has worked as an investment advisor, financial analyst, risk management officer, manager of financial planning, and compliance and internal control officer.

Rate author
Online Investment
Add a comment